Saturday, November 23, 2002

Article : Societal Learning - Creating Big-Systems Change : By Steve Waddell - "Innovative approaches to solving large societal problems are producing some impressive results. Banks are teaming up with community groups to find ways to generate profits and support local economic development; construction companies are working with nongovernmental organizations to produce income and develop sustainable water and sanitation systems for the developing world; environmental activists and corporations are partnering to improve competitive positions and preserve the environment … When formalized into new patterns of working together-often through the creation of new umbrella organizations with participants from diverse parts of society-these mutually beneficial outcomes represent societal learning. Societal learning is a process of changing patterns of interactions within and between diverse organizations and social units to enhance society's capacity to innovate. Large-scale problems-such as poverty and environmental degradation-require substantial societal learning in order for lasting change to occur … Societal learning almost always involves the collaboration of the three organizational ‘sectors’: government, business, and civil society organizations (labor, community-based, religious, and nongovernmental entities). These sectors represent the three key systems of our society: political (government), economic (business), and social (civil society) (see ‘The Three Sectors’). All organizations can be categorized as being in one of the three organizational sectors, or as a hybrid of them. Any business that wants to profoundly alter its operating environment, any government that seeks to undertake fundamental reform, and any people who want to improve the world must partner with others from outside their sector."
* Go to Societal Learning - Creating Big-Systems Change, published in the November 2002 edition of Leverage Points
Article : The 'Community of Practice' as a Concept for Spatial Planning :
By Remco Kranendonk - "There are many changes in the rural area, caused by various societal, economic and cultural developments, which leads to complex spatial problems. It have also lead to the network society which offers new challenges to planning and design. The content is changing, but also the methods and tools for spatial planning. Interactive planning becomes more important and planning can be seen as a social learning process. People have a central place. The planner becomes an information manager and a facilitator of the learning process. The Community of Practice offers a concept to handle complex spatial planning problems. The engagement, imagination and direction will be strengthened by various learning processes, as learning by doing, community building, exchanging meaning and investing in new identities. ICT can support a CoP."
* Downloadable as a 10-page, 47 KB PDF file
* Go to The 'Community of Practice' as a Concept for Spatial Planning, posted November 22, 2002 on the Knowledge Board
Book : Executive's Guide to Knowledge Management - The Last Competitive Advantage : By James J. Stapleton; Published November 2002 - "Stapleton explains that while the most significant challenge of the last century was acquiring information, the chief problem of the twenty-first century is figuring out what to do with it. This task can be distilled into two goals: Defining and eliminating the subjective factors in the information-gathering process that can hinder knowledge management; Ensuring that all employees have access to information and the operational latitude to act on it in a manner that is meaningful to the company … Stapleton believes these goals can be achieved by forming an organizational ‘infomentality’ for organizing the array of data, opinion, and information inputs into usable, applicable knowledge. With all personnel understanding what is important and what to do with what is important, mistakes are eliminated and knowledge is employed to its maximum advantage. Subsequent chapters describe processes for building knowledge, gathering intelligence, compiling competitor information, improving customer relations, and maximizing referral source information. The author also puts forth a ten-step system for turning information into knowledge that focuses on finding information, analyzing it, acting on it, and maintaining it … With the explosion of information now available, corporations must be able to transform a wide variety of data and opinions into applicable business knowledge in order to remain successful. James Stapleton gives executives the tools they need to capitalize on the last competitive advantage."
* Go to this book at Amazon, Barnes & Noble or Indigo

Friday, November 22, 2002

Act : E-Government Act of 2002 (USA) : Engrossed as Agreed to or Passed by the House on November 15, 2002 - "To enhance the management and promotion of electronic Government services and processes by establishing a Federal Chief Information Officer within the Office of Management and Budget, and by establishing a broad framework of measures that require using Internet-based information technology to enhance citizen access to Government information and services, and for other purposes."
* Go to E-Government Act of 2002
Article : Smart Machines, Dumb People? : By Carla Sarett - "As people develop increasingly more sophisticated technology, they shed mental chores that they dislike. Specifically, people are able to automate tasks involving data storage and manipulation. In many ways, these are positive developments, but they pose new challenges for training. When people delegate storage tasks to devices and machines, what they need to know and learn must be redefined."
* Go to Smart Machines, Dumb People?, published in the November 2002 edition of Learning Circuits
* Other new articles that may be of interest include:
- Managing the E in E-Learning , by Eli Munzer
- How the U.S. Military is Reinventing Learning, by Paul Harris
- Trends in E-Learning, By Amy Finn
Report (Benchmarking) : World's Most Effective Policies for the e-Economy : Published November 19, 2002 - "benchmarking framework to conduct an evaluation of the UK compared against G7 countries plus Australia and Sweden … There have been two primary objectives of this exercise: … Firstly to develop a transparent, objective methodology for assessing whether the UK has achieved its target of having the best environment in the world for e-commerce by 2002 … Secondly to learn why countries have achieved superior performance in different areas of their e-economies. Higher levels of performance could be due to environmental factors which are largely outside government control in the short term e.g. high population density eases infrastructure roll-out. Alternatively superior performance could be due to high impact policies that have been successful in their local environment … A key goal of this benchmarking project has therefore been to isolate e-agenda policies that have been most successful in their local environments … The final benchmarking framework developed by Booz Allen Hamilton builds on the original concept by the IAP and subsequent work by the Office for National Statistics published in March. It preserves the concept of an ICT adoption ladder - readiness, use and impact. It also applies to the three primary economic actors: government, business and people … In order to assess international performance, indicators have been selected for each area of the framework. These indicators have been combined into 12 performance indices that enable areas of strength and weakness to be identified in each country. In order to identify effective policies, desk research and interviews have been conducted in each country to map e-policies against the same benchmarking framework. This has enabled areas of strong performance within the framework, established by performance index rankings, to be linked directly to policies."
* The report is downloadable as a single file (177-page, 1.5 MB), or by individual chapter
* Go to World's Most Effective Policies for the e-Economy
Report (Issues Management) : Knowledge Management : "Organizing and making corporate knowledge accessible has become a key concern among U.S. employers. For some, the question may be the cost-benefit aspects of an endeavor that is expensive to launch and costly to maintain. Firms will spend a great deal on information management systems in 2002, predicts Gartner Inc., a Stamford, CT-based research firm. As much as $30 billion will be designated for information management systems, including collaboration, business intelligence and document management, the group suggests. Many companies are now reporting good return on their investment. In addition to boosting profits, knowledge management (KM) may promote organizational learning and enhance customer service, according to a KPMG survey. More than 60% of the companies with KM programs report quicker responses to key business problems or say the strategy has helped them deliver better customer service."
* Sections in the Executive Summary include: Global Perspective, Issue Analysis (Current Trends, Drivers, Implications), Issue Management Plan (General Management Strategies, Human Resource Strategies, Measurable Results), Scenarios for the Year 2020 (Scenario One: Trying to Preserve Corporate Wisdom, Scenario Two: Implants Spark Workplace Controversy, Scenario Three: KM Rebounds with Focus on Human Element, Scenario Four: New Workplace Software Monitors Info-Stress)
* NOTE – The Executive Summary is available for free. Access to the full report is restricted to Members
* Go to Knowledge Management, published August 22, 2002 by the Human Resource Institute
Workshop Presentations : KM4Dev 2002 Workshop : Held November 14-15, 2002 (The Hague) - "The KM4dev 2002 workshop focussed on the experiences of development agencies in carrying out internal and/or external Knowledge Management initiatives."
* Go to KM4Dev 2002 Workshop

Thursday, November 21, 2002

Article : Business Impact of Knowledge Management : By Robert S. Seiner - "Knowledge Management (KM) and Employee Portals (EP) are the wave of the future. Companies are asking -- What is it? Why do we need it? How does it relate to what we are doing already? What does it cost (of course)? From a consultant's perspective, it appears as though knowledge management seldom means the same thing from one company to the next … Some companies judge their knowledge management efforts on productivity gain, although the industry analyst groups tell us not to put all of our eggs in that basket. Other companies focus on the sharing of data for business intelligence rather than the sharing of knowledge yet they still call their initiatives or projects knowledge management. And other companies state that their knowledge management efforts focus on the implementation of portals -- with little or no discipline (management) applied to the knowledge that is made available or that can be captured through the portals … In every case, the intentions of sharing knowledge are good, even if the definition of knowledge management and the definition of knowledge itself varies from place to place. The definition of knowledge management that I use states that KM involves a discipline of spreading knowledge of individuals and groups across the organization in ways that directly impact performance … This impact on performance can take many shapes and forms. The impact can be related to the promotion of ‘healthy’ or smart business activities, the involvement of knowledge stewards in daily activities, the limiting of the risk associated with people leaving the organization, understanding employee needs for knowledge, and making that knowledge, information, and data available to them … This article walks you briefly through five business impacts of knowledge management:
[1] The implementation of a knowledge management system promotes many 'healthy' business activities including
[2] Knowledge management involves stewards (those accountable for knowledge) in the daily use of their knowledge and in daily activities
[3] Knowledge management mitigates or eliminates the risks associated with attrition
[4] A knowledge management system promotes getting a good understanding of the knowledge, information, and data needs of employees
[5] A knowledge management (employee) portal provides 24x7 access to ALL recorded knowledge, information and data about customers, prospects, employees, partners"
* Go to Business Impact of Knowledge Management, published in the November 2002 edition of DBAzine.com
Article : Knowledge Management and Six Sigma - Exploring the Potential of Two Powerful Disciplines : By Paige Leavitt; Published November 2002 - "Both Six Sigma and knowledge management (KM) share a notable distinction in a corporate universe full of change initiatives and improvement philosophies. Like the embrace of team structures in the 1980s, these two approaches to business management, after proven successes, have been integrated into regular operations at leading companies, while most methods have been quickly exposed as ineffective trends. And the quality functions that often guide and maintain the learning cultures within organizations are challenged to create a synergistic relationship between the two established approaches … In a recent teleconference with more than 100 participants representing all corners of the marketplace, KM thought leaders at APQC discussed how the principles of Six Sigma and KM support each other and create a strong foundation for a learning organization."
* Go to Knowledge Management and Six Sigma, published by the APQC
* Another Leavitt article that may be of interest is - The Role of Knowledge Management in New Drug Development
Information Series : Critical Perspectives on Mentoring - Trends and Issues : "The chapters in this volume explore emerging viewpoints, issues, and trends related to mentoring and adult learning. The authors adopt a critical perspective intended to develop an understanding of mentoring’s potential to enhance as well as hinder learning in adulthood … Vivian Mott examines the role of mentoring in adult learning and development by discussing definitions and models of mentoring, its psychosocial and developmental benefits, transformative potential, and limitations … Andrea Ellinger reviews research on mentoring in the contexts of the workplace and educational institutions, identifying parallel developments in the literature. Talmadge Guy describes the growing phenomenon of telementoring, which can enable mentoring relationships that are not otherwise possible, but which can be subject to the same limitations as other online communication. The implications of unequal access to technology on telementoring are also addressed … Catherine Hansman takes up the issues of diversity and power in mentoring, examining the impact on women and people of color of mentoring by persons with the same or different characteristics and backgrounds … In the concluding chapter, Hansman presents implications for practice and suggestions for further research."
* Chapter titles include:
01. Mentoring: From Athena to the 21st Century
02. Emerging Perspectives on Mentoring
03. Mentoring in Contexts
04. Telementoring
05. Diversity and Power in Mentoring Relationships
06. Facing Forward: Implications for Practice and Suggestions for Future Research
* Go to Critical Perspectives on Mentoring, published by ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education (ERIC/ACVE)
Report : Retaining Valuable Knowledge - Proactive Strategies to Deal with a Shifting Work Force : "Attracting, developing, and retaining a knowledgeable work force is a major issue for senior management teams, but many are not yet aware of the scope of the problem or potential solutions. The Best-Practice Report Retaining Valuable Knowledge: Proactive Strategies to Deal with a Shifting Work Force identifies how the principles, tools, and practices of knowledge management can be applied to retain valuable knowledge before it leaves the organization and to transfer the knowledge of the organization to its new employees … The purpose of this report is to help guide the successful design and implementation of knowledge retention strategies by detailing the options and critical success factors, based on lessons from leading organizations, in three areas: identifying the knowledge and the need, methods for knowledge capture, and methods for the transfer and access of knowledge"
* Download a free Executive Summary (16-page, 534 KB PDF) or purchase the Full Report
* Go to Retaining Valuable Knowledge, published by the APQC
Technology : Virtual Keyboards Approach Reality : By Michael Fitzgerald; Published November 19, 2002 - "Three competing companies—VKB of Jerusalem, Israel, Canesta of San Jose, CA, and Virtual Devices of Pittsburgh, PA—are selling products that use lasers to project an image of a full-sized QWERTY keyboard on a flat surface. Optical sensors then track the user’s finger movements and translate them into keystrokes on a screen. The owner of a mobile gadgets equipped with such a keyboard could prop it up on a seatback tray or a briefcase and type away, eschewing a full laptop or a collapsible keyboard … The machine-vision software that goes into such systems is so complex that it could easily handle other tasks such as facial recognition. But Canesta, for one, ‘honed in on the keyboard because we thought it was cool and also extremely marketable,’ says Cyruis Bamji, the company’s chief technology officer."
* Go to Virtual Keyboards Approach Reality, published in the November 2002 edition of Technology Review

Wednesday, November 20, 2002

Article : Innovate Now! : By Gary Hamel - "Conventional wisdom says to get back to basics … Conventional wisdom says to cut costs … Conventional wisdom is doomed … The winners are the innovators who are making bold thinking an everyday part of doing business … If there's one thing we need to understand about this bruised business environment, it's this: Yesterday's success has never mattered less. Today's success has never been more fragile. Tomorrow has never been more uncertain. And the courage to lead the kind of change that it takes to survive -- or, even more important, to win -- in this world has never been in such short supply … I hear it from executives all the time: ‘I understand that we need to innovate, but why now? I'm just trying to make it to the next quarter. This is the time to get back to basics.’ In theory, I don't object to getting back to basics. Every company has to grow revenue, raise prices ( if it can ), and cut costs. That simple arithmetic never changes … But if you want to outperform your lackluster peers, you're going to have to bring more than basic thinking to the basics. You're going to have to bring radical thinking to the basics … Many executives choke on the word ‘radical.’ They equate ‘radical’ with high-risk, ill-conceived, and highly speculative projects. But by my definition, radical means none of those things. Instead, a radical idea is one that meets one or more of the following three standards … Many executives choke on the word ‘radical.’ They equate ‘radical’ with high-risk, ill-conceived, and highly speculative projects. But by my definition, radical means none of those things. Instead, a radical idea is one that meets one or more of the following three standards … [1] A radical idea has the power to change customer expectations … [2] A radical idea changes the basis for competition … [3] A radical idea is one that has the power to change industry economics … The first step toward making innovation systemic is to realize that many organizations are systemically hostile to innovation … A second systemic belief that creates hostility toward innovation is the notion that change starts at the top … A third belief that is toxic to innovation is the idea that the company is the business model … The challenge of systemic, radical innovation leads to two fundamental questions: How do you generate breakthrough ideas? And how do you manage that process? … In talking with innovators, four perspectives -- four lenses -- seemed to dominate [a] Radical innovators challenge the dogmas and the orthodoxies of the incumbents … [b] Radical innovators spot the trends that are already changing but have gone unnoticed … [c] Radical innovators learn to live inside the customer's skin … [d] Radical innovators think of their companies as portfolios of assets and competencies … The challenge is to know where you're headed, so that those steps can lead you in a whole new direction. And then, one day, you'll find yourself in territory where no one has gone before."
* Go to Innovate Now!, published in the December 2002 edition of FastCompany
Keynote Presentation : The Embedded Knowledge Worker - How to Make the Knowledge Worker a Spider in its Web : Presented November 5, 2002 by Huub J. M. Rutten - "described the knowledge worker like a fly caught in the world wide web and showed how to turn him to be a spider in its own web … Following up the keynote, Huub held an online Workshop where he analysed how a linguistic engine can help the knowledge worker to share and to increase his own knowledge. Huub believes that the working environment for the knowledge worker should help him to be unique, to develop recognisable added value without keeping everything away for their colleagues."
* Downloadable as a 35-slide, 2.4 MB PowerPoint file
* Go to The Embedded Knowledge Worker, posted on the Knowledge Board
Discussion Forum : Sociopranos :
"a discussion forum in which YOU make the topics and reply to those topics that are of interest to you. The basic idea being people will not only teach each other but also learn from each other. It's free and simple to use, so register now and start to take part!"
* Current forum sections include: Internet, Society & Social Research (e.g., e-Learning, Into the Cyberfield: Social Research in the Virtual Realm, etc.), Off Topic Areas (e.g., Announcements, Suggestions & Help Area,etc.); Sociopranos Sociological Chatter (Social Psychology, Sociology, etc.); and Useful Links
* Go to Sociopranos
* Source: Originally encountered on the online facilitation mail list
Survey Results : Executive Issues 2002 - The Impact of Uncertainty on the Executive Agenda : "Among the major findings in the report are the following:
* Profitable customer relationships - rather than sheer volume of customers dominate in leaders’ priority lists. Accenture offers practical principles to improve the success rates and profitability of companies’ customer relationship management investments.
* Innovation - dropped even lower in leaders’ reported priorities in 2002 compared with 2001 - despite strong evidence in a recent Accenture survey of Chief Executive magazine readers, which found that even with today’s focus on cost cutting, CEOs say that innovation is one of the top factors in achieving competitive advantage. Accenture recommends three kinds of initiatives companies can pursue to bring more of their good ideas to market, faster.
* People - at least in terms of workforce productivity - likewise slipped in leaders’ reported priorities from 2001 to 2002. However, improving workforce productivity holds the key to achieving significant improvements in business performance in a tough economic environment. Accenture describes a framework executives can use to align their workforces to business strategy to drive benefits to the bottom line."
* Downloadable as a 32-page, 1.5 MB PDF file
* Go to Executive Issues 2002, published by Accenture
Thesis : Faceted Id/entity - Managing Representation In A Digital World :
By Danah Boyd; Published September 2002 - "In this thesis, I articulate a theory of how and why individuals use context to convey only a facet of their identity in social interactions. Through this lens, I discuss current issues in digital identity management. In this discussion, I focus on the role of design in affecting an individual’s ability to maintain control of personal representation and identity information. I argue that the architecture of current digital environments has altered our notions of context, motivating users to develop new mechanisms for managing their presentation. I take the stance that users should have the ability to control their digital identity for the same reasons that they seek to control their physical identity, most notably to present themselves in an appropriate manner in relation to the current situation … From this perspective, I argue for a design approach that will aid sociable designers in developing human-centered technologies that allow for individual control over personal identity. First, I argue the need for mechanisms of self-awareness and discuss what forms of awareness users should have. In doing so, I analyze current approaches to awareness and critique my own work on Social Network Fragments, a visualization tool for revealing the structure of one’s digital social network. Alongside self-awareness, I present the need for identity management and critique my work on SecureId, a prototype intended to give users control over their digital presentation by offering security through identity-based knowledge … This thesis argues for empowering users through awareness and control, so that they may provide the level of regulation that is desirable. In doing so, i offer a novel approach to context and identity management in digital social interaction."
* Downloadable as a 118-page, 1.1 MB PDF file
* Go to Faceted Id/entity, posted by the Sociable Media Group
* While you are there, checkout Chat Circles - “a chatroom that uses graphics in a different way than most current graphical chatrooms. Instead of having pictorial avatars, participants in ChatCircles2 use color and geometric form to convey social presence and activity”

Tuesday, November 19, 2002

Article : Disruptive Technologies Can Be Useful : By Sean Gallagher; Published November 1, 2002 - "Working together online can speed change, but beware the personal fallout … Attention, all you technology project managers: it's no longer just cool to be disruptive. Now, it's a business mandate … Thanks to the popularization of the term by Harvard Business School professor Clayton Christiansen, the delivery of a ‘disruptive technology’ has become a badge of honor many vendors have tried to pin on their chests. Napster was disruptive—it changed the entire landscape of the entertainment industry, too much for its own good. It even inspired a legion of copycats aiming to disrupt other fields. Napster-like peer-to-peer computing is behind Lotus Notes inventor Ray Ozzie's Groove Networks, for example … IBM has a similar internal effort called 'e-Workplace,' a collection of software that powers electronic meetings, collaborative Web sites and instant messaging applications. E-Workplace has saved the company $60 million a year on travel alone … You don't have to spend millions to stir things up"
* Go to Disruptive Technologies Can Be Useful
Book : Implementing E-Learning :
By Jay Cross and Lance Dublin; Published November 2002 - "The seventh book in ASTD's E-Learning Series will help you build a powerful implementation and marketing strategy for your e-learning program. This book will show you how to think like a marketing and change management professional by generating awareness for your e-learning brand; position well designed e-learning for maximum effect; develop and implement an effective two-way communication plan; and get your organization ready to accept e-learning. This book is a guide that will enable you to successfully implement e-learning by applying proven techniques from change management and consumer marketing with the ultimate goal of real business results for your organization."
* Go to Implementing E-Learning
* Checkout Jay Cross’ Weblog –
Internet Time Group
Interview : Robert Aiken on the Future of Learning : "In the hands of skilled teachers, technology will provide students with the best possible education -- both face-to-face and distant, collaborative and individualized, and entertaining and instructional … Robert M. Aiken is Professor and Chair of the Research Committee in the Computer and Information Sciences Department, Temple University."
* Go to Robert Aiken on the Future of Learning, posted November 19, 2002 on Ubiquity
Network : SCONE : "The overall objective of the Scone Thematic Network is to stimulate and support the valorisation of knowledge through the creation of new ventures in the member Regions, by enhancing and exchanging already existing processes, actions and instruments implemented by Member organisations … Those schemes, which have already shown their effectiveness, will allow the improvement of regional systems through mutual learning, active exchange of experiences and to promote the visibility of successful schemes in Europe … Special effort will be made to ensure that the outcome of SCONE activities will have direct implications on innovation policy making of all the partner regions … This will be achieved through a number of Bilateral/multilateral meetings both on regional and trans-regional level on specific topics which will involve regional policy makers and local players aiming at: Extracting different methodologies, tools and/or approaches used by regions participating in the SCONE network; Benchmarking activities and tools implemented in each Regions in order to detect the most efficient and transferable mechanisms; Determining good practices at European level and suggest possible action lines to be integrated into Innovation policies at national and regional level; Supporting Project building activities among Scone and Spinning club Members (a club of a number of newly formed Companies"
* Go to SCONE
Workshop Presentations : Increasing the Impact of Lifelong Learning Policies on Innovation : Held October 1 to 2, 2002 (Luxembourg) - "explored how the impact of Lifelong learning (LLL) policies on innovation and competitiveness can be monitored and enhanced. The objective was to foster a process of ‘policy learning’ in which participants draw practical policy lessons from experience in other EU Member States, and translate this into concrete policy improvements … Statistical evidence and a specific European scoreboard ‘LLL for Innovation’ were presented and discussed that allowed comparing relative strengths and weaknesses of EU Member States. Interventions by social partners’ gave a better idea how LLL can enhance innovation at company level. Different national policy initiatives were presented and discussed. Selected examples of institutional and legal frameworks, national action plans and specific policy schemes (e.g. matching LLL offer and demand at local/regional level) were examined and compared … Overall, the workshop contributed to establish bridges between the education and employment approaches to LLL, and the use of LLL as an innovation policy tool. The workshop identified fields for ‘transnational policy learning’ and policy improvements. Examples include the implementation of Individual Learning Accounts, actions to increase SMEs’ intake of LLL, and the establishment of systems of recognition and validation of informal learning."
* A sampling of presentations include:
- Life Long Learning for Innovation: A top priority of the European Union, by Peter Löwe, European Commission, DG Enterprise
- Life Long Learning for Innovation, by Martin Lamb, Learning and Skills Council, UK
- Indicators for Lifelong Learning and Innovation, by Anthony Arundel, MERIT, University of Maastricht
* Background papers are available in PDF format
* Presentations are downloadable in PowerPoint format
* Go to Increasing the Impact of Lifelong Learning Policies on Innovation

Monday, November 18, 2002

Discussion Paper : Organizational Culture and Network Embeddedness : By N. G. Noorderhaven, C. I. Koen, and S. Beugelsdijk; Published October 2002 -
"A question that has been neglected in network research is where differences in network embeddedness come from. The network literature reveals that there are three key characteristics of embedded relationships: trust, open communication, and joint problem solving. On the basis of the sparse empirical studies of factors leading to network embeddedness, we identify organizational culture as a potentially important organizational-level factor. Building on empirical organizational culture studies we select ten dimensions of organizational culture that for theoretical and/or empirical reasons can be linked to network embeddedness, and formulate propositions concerning their effects."
* Downloadable as 52-page, 334 KB PDF file
* Here is a direct link to the PDF file for Organizational Culture and Network Embeddedness
* Source: Originally encountered in the dynnet newsletter
Conference Presentations : KMWorld & Intranets 2002 : Held October 28 to October 31, 2002 (Santa Clara, California)
* KMWorld Presentations are available for:
- PreConference Workshops
- KMWorld Keynotes
+ TUESDAY:
- Track A – Strategies, Models, & Processes
- Track B – Content Management & KM
- Track C – Communities & Collaboration
+ WEDNESDAY:
- Track A – Strategies, Models, & Processes
- Track C – E-Learning
- Track D – Portal Strategy
+ THURSDAY:
- Track A – ROI & Measurement
- Track C – Human Resources & KM
- Track D – E-Government
* Go to KMWorld & Intranets 2002
e-Journals (Free Access Until November 24, 2002) : Journal of Knowledge Management & Journal of Intellectual Capital :
* Journal of Knowledge Management –
“a peer-reviewed quarterly publication dedicated to the exchange of the latest research and practical information on all aspects of managing knowledge in organisations. The journal publishes original research and case studies by academic, business and government contributors on strategies, tools, techniques and technologies for Knowledge Management”
* Journal of Intellectual Capital - “dedicated to the international exchange of cutting edge research and best practice on all aspects of managing intellectual capital in organisations. Whilst focusing on the identification and implementation of innovative intellectual capital strategies, this journal also addresses the application of theoretical concepts to the modern knowledge economy”
* Go to Emerald Journals of the Week
Research Programme : Policy-making, Reporting and measuring, Intangibles, Skills development, Management (PRISM) :
* "New on the site:
- The shifting corporate asset base – this short paper sets out PRISM's provisional views on how forces in the economy are re-shaping the "map" of the modern firm's resources and its sources of competitive advantage.
- Is GDP being underestimated by as much as 7% by not recognizing, nor accounting for, the formation of intellectual capital? Peter Hill investigates
- There is room for improvement in the European IPR framework – in particular, in 'federalising' and making more cost-efficient the processes, argues this summary paper from Larry Cohen (MWE)
- PRISM's second conference in Copenhagen recently focused on the results of the project to date.
- What happens to knowledge management initiatives when companies merge? This PRISM case study examines the challenges."
* Go to PRISM
Webcasts (Archived) : Federal CIO Council's KM Working Group's Meetings :
* Available Webcasts include:
- November 13, 2002 - Project Exodus/Appreciative Sharing for Knowledge (ASK) - 95 minutes
- September 18, 2002 - Homeland Security - 63 minutes
* Go to Federal CIO Council's KM Working Group's Meetings

Sunday, November 17, 2002

Article : Intellectual Property - When is it the Best Incentive System? :
By Nancy Gallini and Suzanne Scotchmer - "The past two decades have seen a boom in research on intellectual property, driven in part by emerging technologies, which have challenged existing protection mechanisms, and by the expanded protection offered under international trade agreements. Economists have weighed in with a range of opinions on the strength of current protection mechanisms, on the optimal design for such mechanisms, and on the relative virtues and flaws of each system. This paper sets out to review the economic literature on ‘optimal incentive mechanisms,’ such as intellectual property, that attempt promote R&D … Public authorities may want to encourage R&D to promote socially-desirable investments that firms or individuals might otherwise not make. For example, a firm might not be able to profit from its inventions if trade secrecy and first-mover advantages are too weak and its innovations are rapidly imitated by competitors. The firm might then decide not to invest in R&D for research projects that could prove socially beneficial. Several “incentive mechanisms” could remedy this situation: the government might contract for the R&D directly, as it often does with military products; it could also offer a prize for successful inventions (see our recent summary of a paper Shavell and van Ypersele in issue 2002-1); finally, the government might grant intellectual property protections, such as patents. Patents provide an incentive for innovation by allowing firms to obtain monopoly profits from their inventions for a limited period of time … The paper examines three questions, and how economists have attempted to answer them: Are there natural market forces that protect inventors and render formal protections or other incentives unnecessary?; If not, is intellectual property protection the best incentive system, or should the technology instead be developed by a public sponsor and offered for free in the public domain?; How should intellectual property protection mechanisms be designed in order to balance the disadvantages of high monopoly prices with the incentives to innovate?"
* Go to Intellectual Property - When is it the Best Incentive System?, published in the 2002.4 edition of Technological Innovation and Intellectual Property
Book Chapter : Knowledge Communities - Online Environments for Supporting Knowledge Management and its Social Context : By Thomas Erickson and Wendy A. Kellogg - "The issue of how to support the re-use of knowledge ­ under rubrics such as organizational memory, knowledge management and expertise management ­ has received increasing attention over the last decade. In this chapter we take a strongly social approach to the issue, arguing that knowledge (and expertise) is created, used, and disseminated in ways that are inextricably entwined with the social milieu, and therefore that systems which attempt to support these processes must take social factors into account … Our approach to managing knowledge or expertise is to do it on-line, via multi-user networked environments that support group communication and collaboration. That is, we are interested in designing on-line environments within which users can engage socially with one another, and, in the process, discover, develop, evolve, and explicate knowledge relevant to shared projects and goals. We refer to online multi-user environments used in these ways as ‘knowledge communities.’ … This chapter consists of two sections. In the first section we make the case for a deeply social approach to knowledge management. We begin with an example that depicts a number of ways in which the production and use of knowledge is fundamentally entwined with social phenomena. We note that this socially situated view of knowledge is supported by research in a number of disciplines, and also has made its way into the business discourse that surrounds knowledge management. This view raises a challenge for those designing technology: knowledge management systems must take into account, either explicitly or implicitly, the social context within which knowledge is produced and consumed … In the second part of the chapter we argue that one way of addressing this challenge is via the sorts of online multi-user systems that we call knowledge communities. We describe some examples of systems that currently function as knowledge communities and then turn to our own work on designing infrastructures for knowledge communities. Our general approach is to design online environments that, by making users and their activities visible to one another, can enable a variety of social phenomena that support social and work-oriented interaction. We describe a system called ‘Babble,’ which we have designed, implemented, and deployed to about twenty workgroups over the last four years. We report on our experience with Babble, and conclude by discussing some of the general issues we see for designing online environments that support a socially-oriented approach to the management of knowledge and expertise."
* To Appear in ‘Sharing Expertise: Beyond Knowledge Management
* Go to Knowledge Communities
* Look here for other work by Thomas Erickson and Wendy A. Kellogg
Consultation : What is Our Context of Knowledge? : "I have an ambitious hope for this thread. Namely that you and our SIG members will add their own answers to the questions in blue. And that after a period of time Quaerere will edit a summary of this thread’s researched views and then start testing how their views of the questions match ours."
* The questions are:
- What’s truly worth assuming about Knowledge?
- So what is knowledge in this context of worldwide mutuality?
- What are the great new Knowledge Infrastructures? (The Highways? The Communities? The Spaces?)
- What are Knowledge’s great new communications tools?
- How revolutionary new is all this? What Revolutionary Questions will emerge as system challenges?
* Go to What is Our Context of Knowledge?, posted on the Knowledge Board
e-Journal : PsychNology – The Other Side of Technology : "The term PsychNology results from the merge of two words, Psychology and Technology, and has been chosen in order to indicate the tight relationship connecting them. The virtual community that gathers under this name is interested in observing, analyzing and exploring technology from the vantage point of Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, Cognitive Science, Cultural Studies, Arts, Human Factors, Literature, Communication Studies, Education, History, Economy, Philosophy. The community does not have a physical headquarter and the project does not have any lucrative goal per se: PsychNology has been established to favor the horizontal distribution of knowledge and scientific advances in this wide topic area. Access to the website, the community and the resources are then free of any charge."
* There are also Resource and Community sections
* Go to PsychNology